Microorganisms on the tongue could help diagnose heart failure, according to Chinese research presented today on HFA Discoveries, a scientific platform of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC).
“The tongues of patients with chronic heart failure look totally different to those of healthy people,” said study author Dr Tianhui Yuan, from No.1 Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine.
“Normal tongues are pale red with a pale white coating. Heart failure patients have a redder tongue with a yellow coating and the appearance changes as the disease becomes more advanced.”
Dr Yuan and colleagues found that the composition, quantity and dominant bacteria of the tongue coating differ between heart failure patients and healthy people.
Their study investigated the composition of the tongue microbiome in participants with and without chronic heart failure. The study enrolled 42 patients in hospital with chronic heart failure and 28 healthy controls. None of the participants had oral, tongue or dental diseases, had suffered an upper respiratory tract infection in the past week, had used antibiotics and immunosuppressants in the past week, or were pregnant or lactating.
Stainless steel spoons were used to take samples of the tongue coating in the morning, before participants had brushed their teeth or eaten breakfast. A technique called 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to identify bacteria in the samples.
The researchers found that heart failure patients shared the same types of microorganisms in their tongue coating. Healthy people also shared the same microbes. There was no overlap in bacterial content between the two groups.